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Small peptide reachs application in the research in pig nutrition

From;    Author:Stand originally
The protein assimilation in enteron eventually child often is dissociate of small peptide and rather than for the most part amino acid, small peptide is absorbed thoroughly and with 2, 3 peptide form enters blood to circulate, small peptide is having main effect in protein nutrition. Animal to achieve optimal production performance, must need a certain quantity of small peptide, the author is current home, outside to small peptide the research in pig nutrition and applied current situation make one overview. As the development of protein and research of amino acerbity nutrition, people already realized the value of peptide nutrition gradually. Aga R (1953) observe, bowel can peptide of double pleasant of complete have a change of luck. Ever since Naey (1959) with Smith (1960) put forward peptide to be able to be cut really by complete have a change of luck above all evidence. The simplest peptide is the 2 peptide that comprise by 2 amino acid, contain key of a peptide among them. Contain 3, 4, 5 peptide that wait for amino acid are called respectively 3, 4, 5 peptide. By 2- - the straight key peptide that 10 amino acid form through peptide key is called few peptide or small peptide. In recent years research makes clear as a result, the pig is right inside alvine path use proteinly not dissociate of bureau be confined to the form of amino acid, is for the most part with 2- - the small peptide form of 3 amino acerbity composition absorbs. Le Guowei (1997) reportorial small peptide passes cell of alvine mucous membrane thoroughly enter systematic circulation. Such peptide kind by complete absorption viewpoint is taken seriously gradually, peptide kind research is begun subsequently rise. 1, the absorption of small peptide inside pig body mechanism Drockcoopdeng (1962) the existence that discovers special peptide in plasma, if contain chest the peptide of amino acid. Chen (1962) with Adibi (1978) explore protein to be in with electromagnetism bougie the final result of small peptide is small peptide and amino acid. These absorbed a mechanism to offer further proof to small peptide. A series of enzymatic action inside the enteron of protein classics pig in ration, final degradation is free amino acid and small peptide, among them small peptide brushs state edge to get in nap of pig small intestine the action of enzymatic N of ammoniac peptide enzymatic A and ammoniac peptide, final with free the form of amino acid and small peptide is absorbed to use by the pig. Small peptide and amino acid absorb a mechanism to differ completely. Study the result makes clear at present, have 3 kinds as follows to absorb a mechanism at least: ① dissociate of amino acid the process of active have a change of luck that absorbing is pump of Na of an active support, and Matthrws (1987) with Vin - Cenzini (1989) the absorption that discovers small peptide is basically rely on H or conductance of Ca2 + ionic chroma and the process of have a change of luck of the disappear energy consumption that have. Means of this kind of have a change of luck is in anoxic or be restrained below the condition that adds metabolization depressor. The absorption of small peptide needs ② great majority an acidity environment, 1 element peptide needs 2 H + , namely this kind of blame cost that absorbs a mechanism to have PH dependence can sexual Na + / H + exchange carries a system. Daniel (1994) report, the motivation of small peptide have a change of luck originates the electrochemistry gradient of proton, the power that proton produces to the have a change of luck inside the cell drives small peptide to the motion inside the cell, so small peptide enters a cell with diffusing form, the PH that causes cellular oar drops, thereby activation Na + / H + passageway, h + is released a cell, the PH inside the cell restores original water. When lacking H + , the absorption of small peptide relies on the heart thing chroma outside film to undertake, when cell of prep above of chroma of + of the H outside the cell inside when, pass produce electricity in all transfer system goes against have a change of luck of heart thing chroma. Peptide of pleasant of ③ cereal Guang (GSH) transfer system. Vincenzini (1989) report, the chroma gradient of the have a change of luck crossing film of GSH and sodium ion, potassium ion, lithium ion, calcic ion, manganese ion is concerned, and have nothing to do with pH indicator chroma. Because GSH is had inside biomembrane,fight oxidation, and GSH transfer system may have special physiology sense. 2, small peptide reachs physiology action to the nutrition of the pig the synthetic Boza of 2.1 stimulative protein (1995) , Infante (1992) , Monchiand Rerat (1993) Pullain (1991) research makes clear as a result, when regarding nitrogen as the source with small peptide form, prep above of integral protein deposit is corresponding amino acerbity ration or complete protein ration. Pierzynowski (1997) report, the small peptide in haemal circulation can participate in the synthesis that organizes protein directly, in addition hepatic, kidney, skin and other organization also use small peptide thoroughly. Among them the kidney is to digest the main room that draws peptide and resorbent amino acid. Rerat (1998) study a report, to the pig after duodenum perfusion small peptide, the dissociate of perfusion of chroma prep above of serous insulin amino acid group. And one of functions of insulin are to participate in the peptide catenary when protein synthesis to lengthen, increase protein synthesis. Wang (1994) observe 2, acerbity peptide of 3 eggs ammonia is right 3H - the stimulative action that Leu mix into enters constituent albumen is more than egg ammonia acid. Protein deposit is the result that pig whole protein synthesizes as joint as degradation action, azotic deposit increases to mean protein namely synthetic rate increases relatively or degradation rate decreases relatively. 2.2 promote mineral absorption to use Found (1974) report, be located in 5 yuan or the metallic ion of center of content of complexing of 6 yuan of annulus brushs state line through small intestine nap, be absorbed with the form of small peptide. Li Yongfu (2000) right 1 - the porket of 21 day age adds small peptide iron and dextran iron respectively, serum iron albumen is measured when 14 day age (SF) content, add prep above of small peptide group to add dextran iron among them group and contrast group, this explains the mineral ion of form of content of small peptide complexing is absorbed more easily by airframe. Zhang Bin beautiful (2000) research makes clear as a result, peptide of casein phosphoric acid (CPP) the small peptide that is the acid of ammonia of phosphoric acid silk that contains bunch, CPP falls in neuter and basic requirement, plasma of SerP of its center place and Ca, Fe, Zn is united in wedlock, prevent form precipitation, make the quantity of deliquescent Ca inside bowel increases greatly, increase Ca effectively at the same time the detention time inside body, this union other people also releases Ca after be absorbed by Yang Bi cell, the absorption that promotes Ca thereby and use. 2.3 avoid the absorption between amino acid competitive Rubino (1971) observe peptide does not affect free amino acid is absorbed, different dissociate amino acid is absorbed to small peptide without the influence. Pharasan (1987) report, when lysine and acid of ammonia of essence of life exist with free form, both and mutual competition is absorbed dot, acid of free essence ammonia has the liability that reduces lysine of liver portal vein; When lysine exists with small peptide form, former absorb to its without the influence. The 2.4 immune ability small peptide that raise pig airframe can strengthen beneficial bacterium group progenitive, raise the synthesis of bacterium system protein, enhance disease-resistant power. Research makes clear as a result, small peptide can be stimulated effectively and chorion of revulsive small intestine brushs shape to rise along enzymatic active, what promote an animal is nutritional rehabilitation. Jelle (1981, 1982) research makes clear as a result, β - the 3 peptide that casein hydrolyze produces and big peptide can promote huge bite cell gobble up action. Storia (1994) a kind of when be velar board chemical combination to become with a paragraph of CDNA of pig marrow small peptide, to change positive of orchid family name, negative has inhibition. Andeson (1995) from inside pig small intestine depart gives one lysine of a paragraph of NK few peptide to large intestine liver bacterium has inhibition. The physiology of 2.5 small peptide adjusts action small peptide is given as nerve directly qualitative, path of indirect and exciting bowel suffers body hormone or enzymatic exudation and play action. Be like β - the cheese Fei peptide that casein hydrolyze generates (7 - incomplete of 10 amino acid base) , its amino acid is arranged order and inside the body extreme of source opium peptide arranges ordinal likeness. From β - in casein hydrolyze child farther rarefied the 5 peptide that go out (Tyr - Pro - Phe - Gly - Iie) with 4 peptide (Tyr - Pro - Phe - Pro) , there all is the active of opium peptide outside body. Le Guowei (1997) report, opium peptide exists likewise in the pepsin hydrolyze content of wheaten cereal albumen before body, it can enter blood thoroughly to be given as nerve circularly pledge and produce physiology active effect. 3, a kind of the influence small peptide that small peptide produces property to the pig is action of protein nutrition physiology important form. The productivity that improves an animal with small peptide can have important practice sense. Study the result makes clear, peptide of the Fei inside a few β or other peptide product are added in ration, can improve the manufacturing performance of the pig significantly. Qian Lichun (1998) test result makes clear, in the low protein feed of certain amount, complement contains small peptide material right amountly, can achieve raise to feed the manufacturing level of high protein qualitative ration. Parisini (1989) etc growing add in pig ration a few after peptide, raise hog day weightening finish, protein utilization rate and feed to change significantly rate. Lootekniga (1994) report, fatten adds synthetic small peptide to be able to raise feed pay and lean lean rate in pig ration. Scheppach (1994) discovery small peptide can be stimulated effectively and nap of revulsive small intestine brushs the active with state enzymatic line to rise, enzymatic active rises in consist in chorion, this shows the ability of enzymatic protein hydrolysate rises, airframe is strengthened to the absorption of small peptide. This shows, small peptide offset influences growth crudely, digest the young pig with enzymatic low active to have applied value more. It passes a few enzymatic active in revulsive small intestine rise, and make small intestine digests functional development to shift to an earlier date, the health of stimulative young pig and raise its to produce property. And 2 peptide, 3 peptide are right precaution and the function with treat young pig diarrhoea to have particular. Inchoate ablactation the vigor of the fatty acid that young pig raise feeds the ration that adds small peptide to be able to raise young pig apparently and amylopsin, and can make small intestine nap increases highly, recess becomes shallow, raise what young pig pledges to nurture to digest thereby absorb, reduce at the same time diarrhoea and promote grow. Produce test result proof, small peptide is ameliorable the manufacturing function of pig of secrete wet nurse, make its secrete breeds the quantity increases, match again faster easier. Young pig ablactations weight can reduce sow weight loss higher. Gao Xin (2000) test result makes clear, can improve what young pig nurture pledges to digest with small peptide absorb, improve manufacturing performance, lower diarrhoea index. Wang Bilian (2000) hear the pig that feed a young animal with the small peptide that contains certain amount, pig of test group young is compared contrast weightening finish of group young pig 12.93% , diarrhoea rate is reduced 60% , economic benefits is compared contrast group rise 15.62% . 4, the small peptide application in pig feed when foreground is absorbing because of small peptide, as amino as free acid compares have following characteristics: ① both is absorbed is completely different independent mechanism; ② small peptide amino acid incomplete base absorb speed to be more than corresponding dissociate base acerbity absorption speed; The absorption of ③ small peptide can avoid compete each other between amino acid, when consequently small peptide is absorbed, more amino than free acid has more advantages. In recent years, obtained very great progress to the research of small peptide. Via considering to discover, protein releases quantity and protein character to concern in the small peptide in digestive hydrolyze process. Protein is tall, of small peptide release a quantity much; Conversely, little. The small peptide of protein feed releases order to arrive by how little ordinal for: Casein, fish meal, silkworm chrysalis, soja dregses of rice, soja cake, colza dregses of rice and maize gluten pink. Before the ideal albumen mode of the pig all is a foundation with can using amino acid, result of a few tests makes clear use pure add up to ration or low albumen to balance amino acerbity ration, cannot achieve optimal production performance. Should be united in wedlock further consequently raise a test, when discussing a pig to be used in optimal and amino acid, small peptide is mixed free the scale of amino acid, devise more reasonable feed recipe then, make full use of protein resource will improve manufacturing beneficial result. In the meantime, the scale of the phyletic composition of small peptide in pig feed and amino acid and the action mechanism that grow to adjust with immunity to the pig remain to study further, discuss small peptide to draw metabolization and its action shape further, to develop open up of protein nutrition theory a new approach.

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